All of the preceding topics dealt with the reading and writing of files. You can use the same methods to read from standard input (usually the keyboard) and to write to standard output (usually the display). You can also use the methods to write to the standard error stream. In Object Rexx, these default streams are represented by public objects of the Monitor class: .input, .output, and .error.
The streams STDIN, STDOUT, and STDERR are transient streams. For transient streams, you cannot use any method or method argument for positioning the read and write pointers. You cannot, for example, use the SEEK method on STDOUT.
Writing to STDOUT has the same effect as using the SAY instruction. However, the SAY instruction always writes line-end characters at the end of the string. By using the CHAROUT method to write to STDOUT, you can control when line-end characters are written.
The following example shows a modified COUNT program previously shown in Reading a Text File. COUNT has been modified to display a progress indicator. For every line processed, COUNT now uses CHAROUT to display a single period. COUNT does not write any line-end characters, so the periods wrap to the next line when they reach the end of the line in the Windows window.
/* count counts the words in a file */ parse arg path /* Get the file name */ count=0 /* Initialize the count */ file=.stream~new(path) /* Create a stream object for the input file */ do while file~lines<>0 /* Process each line of the file */ text=file~linein /* Read a line */ count=count+(text~words) /* Count blank-delimited tokens */ .output~charout(".") /* Write period to STDOUT */ end say "" say count
Reading from STDIN using LINEIN is similar to reading with the PARSE PULL instruction:
/* INEXAM.CMD - example of reading STDIN with LINEIN */ /* Prompt for input with SAY and PARSE instructions */ say "What is your name?" parse pull response say "Hi" response say "" /* Now prompt using LINEOUT and LINEIN */ .output~lineout("What is your name?") response=.input~linein .output~lineout("Hi" response)
Using character methods with STDIN and STDOUT gives you more control over the reading and writing of line-end characters. In the following example, the prompting string is written to STDOUT using CHAROUT. Because CHAROUT does not add any line-end characters to the stream, the display cursor is positioned after the prompt string on the same line.
/* INCHAR.CMD - example of reading STDIN with CHARIN */ .output~charout("What is your name? ") response=.input~charin(,10) .output~charout("Hi" response)
CHARIN is used to read the user's response. The user's keystrokes are not returned to your program until the user presses the Enter key. In the example, a length of 10 is specified. If fewer characters than the specified length are available, CHARIN waits until they become available. Otherwise, the characters are returned to your program. CHARIN does not strip any carriage-return or line-feed characters before returning the string to your program. You can observe this with INCHAR by typing several strings that have less than ten characters and pressing Enter after each string:
[C:\]inchar What is your name? John Q. Public Hi John Q. Pu